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圖形用戶界面、程序及并發性

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圖形用戶界面、程序及并發性(中文4000字,英文2900字)
基本的設計準則是“使簡單的事情很容易,困難的事。“最初的設計目標的圖形用戶界面(GUI)圖書館在Java l。o是允許程序員在所有平臺上建立一個看起來不錯的GUI。這一目標并未實現。相反,Java l。o抽象窗口工具包(AWT)產生一個GUI,看起來同樣平庸的所有系統。此外,這是限制;您可以使用只有四個字體和你不能訪問任何更復雜的GUI元素,存在于您的操作系統。Java 1.0 AWT也尷尬的和非面向對象的編程模型。一個學生在我的一個研討會(曾在SUN公司的創建Java)解釋了為什么:原AWT被構想,設計和實現一個月。當然一個奇跡的生產力,也為什么設計是重要的教訓。Java 1.1的情況改善AWT事件模型,需要更清晰,面向對象的方法,隨著javabean,一個面向組件編程模型簡單的可視化編程環境的創建。Java 2(JDK 1.2)完成轉換遠離舊的Java 1.0 AWT基本上取代一切與Java基礎類(JFC)的GUI部分被稱為“搖擺。“這些都是一組豐富的易于使用,易于理解的javabean可以拖(以及手程序)來創建一個合理的GUI。軟件行業的“修訂3”規則(一個產品不好,直到修訂3)似乎適用與編程語言。本章介紹現代Java Swing庫并做出合理的假設—Swing是SUN公司的最終目的地為Java GUI庫。
 
Graphical User Interfaces&Applets&Concurrency
A fundamental design guideline is "Make simple things easy, and difficult things possible."The original design goal of the graphical user interface (GUI) library in Java l.o was to allow the programmer to build a GUI that looks good on all platforms. That goal was not achieved. Instead, the Java l.o Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) produced a GUI that looked equally mediocre on all systems. In addition, it was restrictive; you could use only four fonts and you couldn’t access any of the more sophisticated GUI elements that exist in your operating system. The Java 1.0 AWT programming model was also awkward and non-object-oriented. A student in one of my seminars (who had been at Sun during the creation of Java) explained why: The original AWT had been conceived, designed, and implemented in a month. Certainly a marvel of productivity, and also an object lesson in why design is important. The situation improved with the Java 1.1 AWT event model, which takes a much clearer, object-oriented approach, along with the addition of JavaBeans, a component programming model that is oriented toward the easy creation of visual programming environments. Java 2 (JDK 1.2) finished the transformation away from the old Java 1.0 AWT by essentially replacing everything with the Java Foundation Classes (JFC), the GUI portion of which is called "Swing." These are a rich set of easy-to-use, easy-to-understand JavaBeans that can be dragged and dropped (as well as hand programmed) to create a reasonable GUI. The "revision 3" rule of the software industry (a product isn’t good until revision 3) seems to hold true with programming languages as well. This chapter introduces the modern Java Swing library and makes the reasonable assumption that Swing is Sun’s final destination GUI library for Java.

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