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農村小型水利設施管理優化問題研究-以廣西臨桂區為例(MPA碩士)

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農村小型水利設施管理優化問題研究-以廣西臨桂區為例(MPA碩士)(論文38000字)
摘 要
水是生命之源、生產之要、生態之基。我國自古以來都是一個農業大國,農業的發展和繁榮離不開農村水利設施的健全。對農村小型水利設施的健全不僅要重視建設工作,更加要重視建后的管理維護工作,這關系著水利設施工作效率的發揮,是提高農業生產力,改善農民生活質量的重要環節。
農村小型水利設施分為多個領域,包括水資源、土壤、農業等,按照其規模大小,通常將灌溉面積小于1萬畝、除澇面積小于3萬畝、庫容小于10萬立方米、渠道流量小于1立方米/每秒的農村水利設施劃分為小型農村水利設施的范疇。農村小型水利設施的管理主要是指鄉村灌溉體制,也就是從事灌溉管理的各級灌區管理單位及其相互關系的總稱。農村小型水利設施管理作為一種共同表述,指的是人們對水利設施的建設、供給方式、經營機制、占有、使用、維護決策機制等一系列基本內容,根據基本內容中的一項或多項可將其劃分成不同類型的管理模式。我國農村小型水利設施主要實行集權管理模式,然而,集權管理模式具有很多缺點,當前農村小型水利設施建設不完善,水資源緊缺、水資源配置不均、水權設置不明確等問題日益嚴重,管理優化模式尚未有效建立,水資源供需矛盾越來越成為制約農業生產、農民增收的關鍵。因此農村小型水利設施必須推行管理優化。農村小型水利設施進行管理優化,可以優化農村水利設施規劃布局,以最優化、最節省、最經濟的方式,建設發揮同等效益,甚至發揮更大規模效益的農村小型水利設施,能夠促進地方經濟的發展。廣西臨桂區的農村小型水利工程,基本歸鄉鎮政府所有并進行管理、維修和維護,具體的管理單位是各鄉鎮政府下屬的水利站。日常運行管理則委托工程所受益的村委進行管理。廣西臨桂區農村小型水利工程大多已經運行多年,水利設施老化嚴重,沒有完善的工程管理體制與運行機制,工程實行誰建誰管理的辦法,建成后均由當地村民自行管理,沒有征收水費,每當用水時都是村民自行自覺籌集資金。當前,廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施依然沿用過去的集體組織建設、集體負責管理的模式,農村小型水利設施失管現象較為嚴重。經研究發現,廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施仍普遍存在河道淤積、堤防坍塌、泵站老化、管理用房缺少、渠道老化滲漏等問題,政府管理缺位。并且臨桂區的農戶在前期設計,施工建設和后期運行管理中都過度依賴當地的政府,這也是導致當地農村小型水利設施長期處于落后局面的一個很嚴重的原因。廣西臨桂區目前農村小型水利設施的管理基本上都是由政府部門統一完成的。農民參與度低,且農民的參與意識淡薄,廣西臨桂區在管理機制上缺乏將第三方引入。同時當前廣西臨桂區在農村小型水利設施管理過程中,經常存在著權責不明的問題,并且廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施缺乏專門的養護人員進行管養。通過本文的研究,筆者認為想要構建和完善農村小型水利設施管理優化模式,政府要為農村小型水利設施的管理創造基礎條件,在布局水利建設之初應著眼全縣,結合地區實際情況,做好水利基礎設施建設規劃,避免因利益糾紛影響建后管理工作,確保水利基礎設施效益正常發揮。提高農民管理能力,要加快轉變農民對農村小型水利設施的認識,提高農民對農村小型水利設施功能的認識,形成對農村小型水利設施自覺維護和管理的意識,加大對農村基礎教育的力度,加強人員培訓,鼓勵農民參與。引入第三方機構參與管理,可以探索政府購買服務的做法,在確保工程安全、公共屬性和生態保護的前提下,鼓勵企業、社會組織、個人競爭參與農田水利工程管護,實現農田水利設施“產權到位、權責明確、經費保障、管用得當、持續發展”的目標。探索長效監管機制,要明確管理主體,強化管理主體的責任意識,保障管理工作實效,完善分級管理模式。在管理模式上除了采用縣級直管、鎮政府和鎮直水利部門管理、村集體管理、民間集體管理和村民自管模式以外,要積極推行農村水利協會制度,在全縣組建以用水農戶為主體的農村水利協會,并制定科學可行的協會管理制度,保障管理人員經費,明確管理工作職責,實現農村小型水利設施農戶自主管理模式。加強管理人員素質,有針對性的提高管理人員的專業素質。構建以收益群眾為主體的管理體制。這對廣西臨桂區今后很長一段時間內的農村小型水利設施的管理具有十分重要的指導作用。

關鍵詞:臨桂區;農村小型水利設施;管理模式;問題;優化
 
Abstract
Water is the source of life, production, ecological basis. Since ancient times, China is a big agricultural country, the development and prosperity of agriculture can not be separated from the rural water conservancy facilities. The improvement of rural small water conservancy facilities should not only pay attention to the construction work, pay more attention to the management and maintenance work, which is related to the efficiency of the work of water conservancy facilities, and is an important link to improve the agricultural productivity and improve the quality of life of farmers.
Rural small water conservancy facilities is divided into a number of areas, including water resources, soil, agriculture etc., according to their size, usually irrigation area of less than 1 million mu, waterlogging area of less than 3 million acres, storage capacity is less than 10 million cubic meters, channel flow, less than 1 cubic meters / per second of rural water conservancy design application is divided into the category of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas. The management of small irrigation and water conservancy facilities in rural areas is mainly refers to the rural irrigation system, which is engaged in the management of irrigation management at all levels of irrigation management units and their mutual relations. The management of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas is a kind of common expression, which refers to a series of basic contents, such as the construction of water conservancy facilities, supply mode, operation mechanism, possession, use, maintenance decision-making mechanism, etc., according to the basic content of one or more can be divided into different types of management mode. The centralized management mode of small water conservancy facilities in China, however, has many shortcomings, the current rural small water conservancy facilities construction is not perfect, water shortage, water resource allocation, water rights is not clear and so on. Therefore, the rural small water conservancy facilities must be carried out to optimize the management. The optimization management of the rural small water conservancy facilities can optimize the layout of rural water conservancy facilities in order to optimize, save, and the most economical way. The small water conservancy project in Lingui District of Guangxi, which is owned by the township government, is managed, maintained and maintained, and the specific management unit is the water conservancy station under the township government. Daily operation and management of the village committee for the benefit of the project management. Lingui Guangxi District Rural small water conservancy projects have been running for many years, the aging of water conservancy facilities, no perfect project management system and operation mechanism, the implementation of the project who built the way, after the completion of the local villagers themselves management, no water, when the water is the villagers themselves consciously raise funds. At present, the rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi are still in use in the past. The study found that the Lingui Guangxi District Rural small water conservancy facilities are still widespread in the river deposition, the collapse of the embankment, the pump station aging, management of the housing shortage, the channel aging leakage and other issues, the absence of government management. And the farmers in Lingui District in the early design, construction and operation of the late operation management are over reliance on local government, which is also a very serious cause of the local rural small water conservancy facilities in a long time in a backward situation. At present, the management of small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi is basically completed by the government departments. Farmers' participation is low, and the farmers' participation consciousness is weak, the lack of the third party in the management mechanism of Lingui Guangxi district. At the same time, the current Lingui Guangxi District in the management of small water conservancy facilities, there is often a problem, and the lack of specialized maintenance personnel in rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi. Through the study of this paper, the author thinks that want to build and improve the rural small water conservancy facilities optimization management mode, the government should create the basic conditions for the management of rural small water conservancy facilities, at the beginning of the layout of water conservancy construction should focus on the county, combined with the actual situation in the region, make water conservancy infrastructure construction plan, avoid because of conflicts of interest affect construction management work, to ensure that the benefits of water conservancy infrastructure normal play. Improve the management ability of farmers, to speed up the transformation of farmers to rural small water conservancy facilities, improve farmers' understanding of the function of rural small water conservancy facilities, the formation of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas, the awareness of the consciousness, increase the intensity of rural basic education, strengthen personnel training, encourage farmers to participate. Introducing third party agencies to participate in the management, to explore the practice of government purchase service, under the premise of ensure the safety of the project, public property and ecological protection, enterprises, social organizations and individuals to competition are encouraged to participate in the management and protection of farmland and water conservancy engineering, irrigation and water conservancy facilities property, clear responsibilities, funding and works properly and sustainable development ". Explore the long-term supervision mechanism, to clear the main body of management, strengthen the management of the main responsibility consciousness, to ensure the effectiveness of management work, improve the classification management model. On the management mode in addition to the county straight, town government and town water sector management, management of village collective, folk collective management and villagers self - management mode outside, to actively promote the rural water conservancy association system, in the county set up to water of farmers as the main body of Rural Water Conservancy Association, and formulate scientific and feasible association management system, guarantee funds for the management personnel, clear management responsibilities, independent management mode of rural small water conservancy facilities farmers. To strengthen the quality of management personnel, and to improve the professional quality of management personnel. Building the management system of the masses as the main body. This has a very important guiding role in the management of rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui Guangxi area for a long time.
Key words: water conservancy facilities, optimization, management mode, rural, small

目 錄
摘 要    I
Abstract    III
一、導論    1
(一)選題緣由    1
(二)研究的意義    1
(三)國內外研究現狀    2
1.國外研究現狀    2
2.國內研究現狀    3
(四)研究方法    4
1.文獻研究方法    4
2.歷史分析法    4
3.調查研究方法    4
(五)創新點    4
二、農村小型水利設施管理優化的必要性    5
(一)核心概念界定    5
1.農村水利設施    5
2.農村小型水利設施    5
3.農村小型水利設施管理    5
4.農村小型水利設施管理優化的內涵    7
(二)農村小型水利設施管理優化的理論依據    7
1.公共產品理論    7
2.“多中心治理”理論    8
3.參與式發展理論    9
(三)農村小型水利設施管理優化的現實必要性    10
1.現有管理模式存在弊端    10
2.優化水資源配置的需要    10
3.改善農業生產條件的需要    10
4.促進地方經濟持續發展的需要    11
三、廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施管理的現狀分析    12
(一)廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施管理概況    12
1.臨桂區地理及農村小型水利設施情況    12
2.臨桂區現有農村小型水利設施管理現狀    12
(二)廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施管理存在的問題    13
1.政府管理缺位    13
2.村集體自身管理能力有限    14
4.缺乏第三方機構引入機制    15
3.水利建設權責不明    16
(三)廣西臨桂區農村小型水利設施管理存在問題的原因分析    17
1.政府角度    17
2.農民自身角度    19
3.市場需求角度    20
四、國外創新農村小型水利設施管理模式的探索經驗及其啟示    21
(一)國外的經驗    21
1.各級政府分級管理    21
2.吸收農民參與管理    22
3.加強水利制度建設    22
(二)啟示    23
1.深化水利機構管理體制改革    23
2.整合多方資源實行管理優化    23
3.加大農村小型水利設施管理人財投入    24
4.借鑒國外經驗完善水利法律體系    24
五、農村小型水利設施管理優化的對策建議    25
(一)構建以受益群眾為主的管理體制    25
1.鼓勵群眾成立用水戶協會    25
2.構建合理的水價制定機制    25
(二)政府要為農村小型水利設施的管理創造基礎條件    26
1.科學規劃農村水利建設    26
2.同步推進建設與管理    27
3.保障管理工作經費    27
(三)提高農民管理能力    28
1.提高農民對農村小型水利設施的認識    28
2.鼓勵農民參與    28
3.加強管理人員素質    28
(四)引入第三方機構參與管理    29
(五)探索長效監管機制    29
六、結語    31
(一)研究結論    31
(二)不足之處    31
參考文獻    33
致 謝    35

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